Krypt3ia

(Greek: κρυπτεία / krupteía, from κρυπτός / kruptós, “hidden, secret things”)

Archive for the ‘.gov’ Category

Prosecuting The Russian Cyber War: Beyond The Hyperbole

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This weekend my father actually asked me what I thought Big O was gonna do to respond to the hacking of our elections. He continued in the same breath to ask if we were going to take out Russia’s grid or something like that. My first thought was to say “Noooo” and to then explain to him how that might go all kinetic real quick like on us if we did. My response to him yesterday will be the genesis of this blog post today for you all. Since everyone seems all hot and bothered as to how we will respond and not giving Big O the benefit of the doubt that he actually reads the PDB’s and thinks about them, I will boil it all down to what I would do against Russia and Pooty to thread the needle and not cause an escalation.

First:

I would undertake the review on what exactly happened with the IW/DISINFO/PSYOP/Hack that took place for the election. This is important to not only understand what happened, but to understand just how much damage was done and what actions it took to set that into motion. From this you can assess the response level you need and in this case it has been rather speculative as to what really went down. This I also really point at the whole argument that the election machines in key states may or may not have had some supply chain tampering going on. So far I personally have seen no evidence that there was enough of an investigation to rule this out.

Second:

I would look at the capabilities we have and the intelligence we have collected on Putin. Intel such as a good psych profile and anything on his wealth/business structure. With both of these I would seek to discern what would hurt him personally, not so much the country. I would also use the psych profile to determine in red teaming out what his responses would be to certain scenarios. In essence I would perform a game scenario simulation to get the best results for us and start to build a plan(s) on those.

Third:

I would, knowing that this attack was personal for Pooty, and given his nature (much like Trumps really) I would perform the following actions;

  1. Attack his finances. All of the dirty ones first.
  2. Attack him with whatever kompromat we have (CIA/NSA) in the same leaks style that we saw from the elections (See news today about Tillerson for a cue)
  3. IF we have the assets in place both digital and “other” I would work to counter ongoing efforts in Germany and France as well as other places where we know he wants to do the same thing politically

These are the things I would do in parallel to assessing the damage to our forward capacities regarding the ShadowBrokers recent tease. IF all of those exploits on there are real, then all of them have been compromised and burned. Any operations that may have used those tools are burned and any future use of them has been burned. It is my opinion that the new events with the ersatz “Boceefus” account is just Pooty and the GRU saying “Try anything and you will fail” but that is only one dimensional thinking frankly. It is time to go beyond bits and bytes and also use HUMINT.

Just this guys take…

K.

Written by Krypt3ia

2016/12/19 at 19:05

Re-Counts and Forensics in 2016

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Since the election I have taken a break from the insanity as much as I could. I blocked off Trump on Twitter but he keeps leaking through the blocks anyway. I have been reading though on the usual source sites like the New York Times and other news sites and with each day I am seeing the utter unravelling of America. Thinking about it though I have to wonder if the unravelling happened long ago and this is all just an echo of the failure finally reaching us all like a radio wave from a distant dying pulsar…

Anyway, I wanted to write today about the current debacle concerning the vote and the calls for an audit of that vote. Since the Green’s have gotten the ball rolling and the Clinton camp finally agreed to look at the vote it seems to be happening and that is a good thing. In an election where blatant tampering through hacking and information operations (DISINFO and IFO-OPS) by the Russian state one can have some sense that perhaps the same adversaries ‘might’ have tampered with the actual votes as well. Now, had it been just troll propaganda wars I might say; “Ok we have been played, they did it, we lost because we as a people are unable to comprehend real news from fake news” but that is not all that happened here. We saw actual hacking campaigns carried out on our voting infrastructure and one of the parties outright and still no one is clamouring for a re-count AND an audit of the systems that are already known to be security challenged?

It is incomprehensible to me at times how our government works at all. The group think and the lackadaisical attitudes towards information security are staggering but this whole episode takes the cake. You mean to tell me that the DHS and the government, the ones who brought us the OPM hack and other massive data breaches are going to tell us that the vote could not have been hacked and it is silly to even consider a forensic audit? This is what I keep hearing in the media and out of the government as calls for the votes to be re-counted and audited. It is also what I am hearing post Halderman’s paper and blog post that says: “I’m not saying the vote was hacked but there is evidence enough to say maybe we should look into it”  What the fuck? We know things went down so why all the reticence to check?

Well let’s look at it another way shall we? let’s say the government, ya know the one who keeps claiming we have “cyber superiority” in fact is shown to have such a poor state of security (like OPM isn’t enough to cast doubt on that one) that the election systems, the ones that the security community has been warning about as insecure for years now, was in fact manipulated as part of a larger operation to fix the election for Putins puppet regime? What exactly would the outcomes be from that revelation?

  1. The system would not be trusted
  2. The country would be in chaos
  3. The government would be seen as incompetent
  4. Putin wins.

It seems to me that most of these things have already come to pass. Sure, we have not actually proven that the systems in key Electoral College states were tampered with by malware or added code yet. That code could have been put in the supply chain easily by infecting the key systems the polling places use (see Halderman’s paper *think USB and ballot templates*) but all it takes is a real forensic evaluation to determine if something was amiss right? Yet I still don’t hear a clamour to get this done. Why is that really? We have been sold the idea on many occasions that it is too hard to hack the election but really, with a limited target and a goal of manipulating it subtly one would not see it blatantly would they? I mean fuck, look, Clinton has what like 2 million more popular votes and this fuckwit wins the college? It is either fantastic strategy on the part of his campaign (I mean Putin’s campaign) or, given all of the other evidence of tampering and obfuscation that something could be amiss with the known insecure systems we vote with right?

Really what I am saying here is this; “We have been played. We have been played and now we have this kleptocrat in office who’s been placed there, whether or not you want to hear this, by the Russian governments intelligence apparatus. The least you can do now is do the due diligence to see if something more happened than the hacks and disinformation operations we already know about.” I suspect though that the government does not want to do this because it would call everything into question. It would openly call out the fact that a nation state fucked with us in such a fundamental way that the only real response would have to be, well, war? I mean what is the response to something of this scale anyway right?

Weigh the evidence.

Occams Razor this shit.

DO THE FUCKING FORENSICS.

K.

Written by Krypt3ia

2016/11/28 at 13:39

Posted in .gov, 2016

Scenarios on Outcomes from Russian Information Operations on the US 2016 Election

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Assessment Goals:

With all that has been happening with the disinformation and influence operations during this election cycle I thought it prudent to thought experiment out some scenarios if Russia or any other adversary with the means, decided to attack the election cycle in other ways. One might ask right now what benefit would other countries like Russia gain from such operations and you would be right to ask. That is a question for another post but suffice to say that if Russia is indeed tampering with our electoral process like they have in others, then the reasons are geopolitical and very much Putin’s aegis in ordering the SVR and KGB to carry them out.

The goal here is to just lay out the attacks that could happen simply and then give you the likely outcomes. All of these are not as comprehensive as you might find in some think tanks like Wikistrat but you get the idea. All of these attacks are possible, and they do not have to all work completely to have secondary and tertiary effects on the US population and political system. Please read through them and ponder yourselves how would you react if these happened? How would the general populace? Would government be able to carry on? If the election cycle is broken and the systems not trusted, how would one re-set the vote and how long would it take?

Interesting times….

SCENARIO 1: VOTE TAMPERING

The voting machine have been tampered with electronically or code has been inserted. The potential for votes being tabulated incorrectly or data tampered with is possible but not probable in the grander scheme in the US according to sources. However, this does not preclude a way found to insert such code or physical devices in key states. It is also not impossible to have assets in play such as sympathizers or outright KGB assets on the ground helping to tamper with the results. I will not go into the details because this is a scenario to start but it is also not the point. Let’s just assume ways have been found to tamper enough to call the electoral data into question via tampering directly with the systems.

POTENTIAL OUTCOME:

  • Trust in the election system is diminished
  • Recalls are called for by both candidates and the public
  • The electronic systems will lose public trust and a re-assessment of the process will be mandated

SCENARIO 2: VOTER ROLLS TAMPERING

Scenario 2 is based on recent events. The hacking of the rolls databases in key states could be an attempt to manipulate the data and cause secondary issues with that data on the day of the election. The posit is that the adversary has tampered with people’s voting preferences data. If you are a republican they can change that roll to the opposite party and vice versa. Additionally what if a users region or address were changed surreptitiously? To date there are no systems that I am aware of that will email you when a change is made to your voting status and how many people check before they go to the polls? This is a common tactic that has been used in gerrymandering an election area by disallowing voters from voting on the day of the election. To date, the FBI has not been able to determine what the hacking on the voter databases was about and this could be one of the goals.

POTENTIAL OUTCOME:

  • Voters are unable to vote once they get to the polling place.
  • Voters are not allowed to correct these records and are thusly negated from the process
  • Attack key states once again, going for the electoral college and you can change the outcome of an election
  • All of the above once again have the amplification of causing distrust of the system and damage to the election
  • The candidates and the people are left with a recall and with the system being manipulated already how can they trust it?

SCENARIO 3: DISRUPTION OF THE PROCESS ELECTRONICALLY

Russia has attacked the Ukraine elections by inserting malware/code into the election machines in 2014 that effectively bricked them. If such an attack code were placed and propagated within the American voting systems the disruption would cause the election to be halted and emergency measures taken. Perhaps the election might try to carry on with paper ballots but I am unsure the process can be that effectively nimble. If the election systems are down, since they are of varying makes and models of machines, the time to return of service would be long, causing more FUD to the elections process itself.

POTENTIAL OUTCOME:

  • Voters are unable to vote or the process takes so long that they walk away with a more analog process
  • Trust in the electronic system would be degraded or destroyed
  • The election cycle would be likely broken and emergency measures would have to be employed (contingencies)
  • Continuity of government is challenged

CONCLUSIONS:

These three scenarios to date, have not been covered I believe. This post comes to you as the fruit of a discussion I had with @SteveD3 and I believe that in our current atmosphere of information warfare and influence operations carried out by Russia, one has to take these thought experiments out for a drive. All of these scenarios are possible and will have the effects of denial, disruption, and degradation to our election systems and the stability of the nation. It need not render the election completely in the favor of one or the other candidate conclusively to cause faith in the system and its outcome to be questioned. Imagine if you will, as Trump has already been saying repeatedly, that these tactics are used and the general populace believes that the election has been rigged? With or without the hand of the Russians, others could be easily blamed by a candidate like Trump and his followers. The outcomes from this could lead to civil unrest and other worse things if they came to pass with the help of information operations attacks by another nation state.

I suggest you red team these ideas yourselves and see what else you can come up with…

Written by Krypt3ia

2016/10/11 at 14:20

Influence Operations: We All Carry Them Out

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Screenshot from 2016-09-06 08-29-26

 

All of the hand wringing and whinge-ing over the possibility that Russia has hacked our completely insecure election systems has my bile up… Well that and it seems I am lactose intolerant and ate whole ice cream last night. Anyway, back to INFLUENCE OPS and their use globally. The article above from the Boston Globe really set me off this weekend. All of these guys in the corridors of power all hand wringing over the possible fact that Russia has been messing with our political process makes me want to fly to Washington and bitch slap people. This type of activity has been going on forever and it is not just Russia pulling these strings even today. If you take a look at the actual history of the world you will see many players playing the same games with or without the benefit of Wikileaks and computers both then and now. This is not new people and for fucks sake wake up and realize that the US playing the “hurt” card in this game is really quite absurd in the grand scheme of things.

Now once you have taken a little trip down history lane with those links I just provided, then I want to ruminate on the whole problem today of the hacks on our democratic systems. See, as a former pentester and now a blue team guy I often ran into places that just did not have a clue about security. Still today there are many places that are very clue free and that also includes our government and those bodies that comprise our election systems. Seriously? Seriously those election systems were not even being monitored? You are shitting me right that the alleged Russian hackers used Acunetix to scan and then just SQLi dumped shit right? …

And no one saw a god damned thing…

It’s hardly INFLUENCE OPS when all you need to do is run a shitty tool and just take what you want with a script kids. So really, stop with the hurt and surprised bullshit Congressman and Senators alike! Put on your big boy and big girl pants and get the fuck over the fact that someone would have the audacity to fuck with our already fucked up election cycle anyway! As to Putin’s comment on the subject recently ‘‘It doesn’t really matter who hacked this data from Mrs. Clinton’s campaign headquarters,’’ I agree, it doesn’t really matter because the fact of the matter here is that her actions alone concerning the BleachBit of her server days after it’s public disclosure should be enough to show us all just what fuckery is afoot without Russian intervention to begin with. What the paradigm change here is is that we now don’t have to send plumbers to Watergate’s to break into file cabinets to get the data. All one needs to do now is fucking Acunetix an IP and then run SQLi map to fuck with a national election and that is just fucking sad.

Screenshot from 2016-09-06 09-17-01Shut up Grandma Nixon!

At the end of the day I for one don’t care who hacked the shit, what I care about is that there is enough evidence to show that even with out information/influence operations that there’s some crooked shit going on. The problem is that this is the default state of our governance and election system so one tends to just become complacent about it. The hack on the election here and now, with the fate of the world in the balance so to speak, with Führer Trump or Grandma Nixon only makes it all the more piquant for the hungry news media but in the end means a choice between two terrible shit sandwiches to those paying attention here.

We are all fucked either way.

Move on.

Dr. K.

Written by Krypt3ia

2016/09/06 at 13:26

No, Juny Was Not Whacked Because He Was A Hacker

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With the alleged death of Juny “AbuHussain Al Britani” Hussain at the local Gas-N-Sip in Raqqa has come the steady stream of self serving headlines and leading questions from the media and the hacking community. I am here to stop you right now and tell you to cut the shit out and read more about what is going on with Da’esh and just who Juny was. The fact of the matter is that Juny was a recruiter as well as an instigator who was directly tied to the Garland shootings because he was on Twitter exhorting those fucktards into action.

Juny as a hacker is a separate story and one that at some times shows he had some talents but overall once he left for Syria he was fuck all as a hacker or part of the alleged “cyber caliphate” In fact if you really look at the alleged hacks by the Caliphate there is not much to look at really. The DOD/Pentagon emails and the open sourced intelligence that was often wrong on military members was all low level fuckery and not a clear and present danger to the West. No, it was not the hacking that made him a HVT on the US and British lists, it was that he was someone these shitheads look up to and was an avowed Da’eshbag who was ‘in country’ and fighting with Da’esh.

That is why they killed him with a hellfire fired from a drone. It was not because he was a hacker and for fucks sake stop it with the “Ermegerd hackers are now targets of drones!” self important bullshit.

So please stop it with all the bullshit that he was a HVT that we really really wanted because he hacked. The reality is he was a HVT but he was also a target of opportunity as well. Another thing to note is that the stories also all cite “anonymous intelligence sources” and the like. That is a euphamism for the government wanting to claim a win and have it all look good. I am still going by the axiom of ‘DNA or it didn’t happen” So far Umm Britani has said he is not dead and there has not been a host of shahidi bullshit videos and poems on the boards or anywhere else online. Perhaps we all are waiting to see some proof here but for fucks sake hackers, hacker media, and news media in general.

Cut it the fuck out. He was an unlawful combatant in country, in the alleged Caliphate and a mouthpiece for Da’esh. It’s as simple as that.

K.

Written by Krypt3ia

2015/08/28 at 10:37

Posted in .gov, .mil, Da'esh

Cryptofuckery: Comey, OPM, YOU.

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I watched in ever increasing fits of rage as the hearings proceeded. First it was the five hearings on the OPM data loss and failures therein, then it was the two hearings on “going dark” featuring James Comey. By the end I was a seething mass of hate gnashing my teeth and using the last nearly shredded synapse I had left to parse the fuckery I had seen.

OPM:

What was all this? How did we get here? How the holy hell did our government completely abdicate its responsibilities around secret information that was used to grant people secret and top secret clearances? I sat mouth agape in rage as I watched Archuleta mumble and stumble her way toward insufficient if not blatantly obfuscated answers to the senators on what and how things had happened. It was clear by the mid point that we had been fucked collectively by the US government who consistently says “trust us” then turns us over and fucks us in the ass.

Now we hear that there actually were approximately 22 million people who’s personal data was stolen by god knows who, though really can we trust that figure? I mean how many times did Archuleta say she did not know how many to the senators? How many though is a relative thing when you are not logging, which now we also know per the CIRT team that testified in one of the hearings. When you aren’t logging it is like every day is a day in Vegas baby.

Fucking hell.

Meanwhile everyone is a twitter about the “who” that did it and the OPM and their minions are crying APT and CHINA! Well, what evidence has been presented that it was in fact China?

Oh, yeah, “trust us”

So, an org that wasn’t properly logging, wasn’t following recommendations from the IG, and had a terrible security record that included not hiring people who knew what they were doing but double and triple tasked current employees to be security is going to tell me definitively that China did it. Sure, I will just believe the fuck out of that. The reality though is that I can believe it was China since I have not seen any data for sale in the darknets and this is their modus operandi but that is cold comfort here. It could have been Russia, it could have been DPRK for all we really know and this can be said because once again, they weren’t logging and they weren’t practicing security due diligence so the bar to entry there was low.

For fucks sake, with what we know now it could have been little Billy in his bedroom with the sticky tube socks who hacked OPM right?

By the end of the hearings I had a massive headache and needed a bottle of whiskey to kill the memories and the pain. Do not get me wrong here people, this is no news to me. You see I once did some work in the gov space and in fact worked in the DOI where that server was housed by OPM (yeah, not even in their own space) and I know how that government sausage was made. I especially loved how I was lied to by employees, to my face, only to show them the actual scans and pentests that proved they were lying. Obviously nothing has changed since I was there many years ago.

The moral of this story though is not only about the lack of due diligence but I wanted to focus on the cryptofuckery that was on every senators lips.

“Why weren’t those files encrypted Mrs. Archuleta?”

Every time this question was asked I just wanted to yell at the tiny screen.

“NO YOU FUCKERS THE CRYPTO WOULD NOT MATTER! YOU DON’T FUCKING GET IT!”

I shook my impotent fist in the air and grumbled over and over but as you would expect it is to no one, since no one listens anyway. The fact of the matter though is that many in the world misapprehend what crypto is and does. A database that is encrypted and is live is not encrypted. The data is encrypted at rest, not while users have active access to it!! So it is useless to hang your hat on the crypto argument in the debate over OPM failure but the senate and the genpop just don’t get that.

Here it is for you all in plain lingo;

If the system is live and the user who has access to it is pwn3d then FUCK ALL matters crypto ok? Own the endpoint and you own the whole thing. I sense a Game of Thrones quote here somewhere but I just can’t put it together.

JESUS FUCK.

Comey The Backdoor King:

Then the hearings for “Going Dark” came and the derp parade was in full derp regalia. James “back door” Comey came to the senate to beg the question;

“What’s so bad about backdoor’s on crypto? I mean, trust us, we are the government!”

I sat agog once again as this guy took every opportunity to say “Well, I am not an expert but I see no problem with doing this” repeatedly to the senators. Senators mind you, that did not really take him to task. Instead they listened and nodded and agreed that ISIS is scary and that terrorism was as well. The odd thing though was that if you listened closely enough, Comey was not predicating all of this on Islamic terror but instead “regular crime” He chose to use the old pedophile routine and the obvious child kidnapping scenario to make his case.

It was Jack Bauer all over again except this time Jack was tearing the finger nails off of someone to get their crypto keys because the gubment did not have an easy access backdoor to just decrypt the everything. This is the same argument that we almost saw behind the scenes post 9/11 that got us to where we are today with global pervasive surveillance in the post Snowden era. The only difference this go around is that Comey is asking and the senate and us are watching. This time we at least get to watch and say “WHAT THE FUCK?”

Well, the hearing went on and on while Comey said the same thing again and again “We need this and I don’t think it’s a bad thing, I mean, there has to be a way right?” Contrary to what the experts did say though, that a back door, front door, side door, whatever, degrades the efficacy of the crypto and it should not be done at all. Never mind the whole issue of thinking that we live in an Orwellian dystopia now with pervasive surveillance, add to that that the government would have access, warrant or not, to a universal back door to cryptographic systems. This would be the shit sammich on top of the shit sunday we have today not to put too fine a point on it.

No Comey. Just. No.

Alas though we will see what the senate has to say and the rest of our “august” body we call our government. Kids, we are well and truly more fucked than we were before and I am afraid it is only going to get worse. Back door access to crypto will not help, people will come up with ways to use crypto that is not back door accessible and I am fucking sure that the terrorists and other bad actors will carry on as they have. No Comey, it’s time you did your fucking jobs and got more people into the HUMINT space not just back door all the things.

If I were you all… I would start coding new crypto programs or start printing one time pads.

K.

Written by Krypt3ia

2015/07/11 at 12:52

Posted in .gov, FUCKERY

Commentary: OPM Is Just Another Link In The CyberFail Chain

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Screenshot from 2015-06-22 09:31:49

 

OPM is the exemplar of how our government deals with information security, or should I say doesn’t deal with it. Some will say that there are many mitigating circumstances like old systems that cannot be updated that caused much of the failures that lead to the OPM being compromised for over a year. However, the subsequent pivoting by the adversaries into many other networks we have not begun to even discuss as a nation yet because we are now media and governmentally fixated on the fact that the adversary had access to SF86 forms. Forms mind you that should be one of the better protected things out of all the possible things the government holds in it’s systems. So far the discourse in the media has been more sensationally oriented on the magic secret code names that the likes of Crowdstrike and Mandiant have come up with respectively for actors. Actors that they claim with varying vociferousness are in fact China whether it be the PLA (People’s Liberation Army) or the MSS (Ministry of State Security) though neither is accepting the pure hubris of all their press releases and anonymous or semi anonymous back-channel chats with the media in hopes of more attention.

Screenshot from 2015-06-22 09:31:04

Whether or not these attacks were from China and their varying and vying espionage organs is rather irrelevant now and everyone needs to understand this. The cat is proverbially out of the bag here and by the cat slipping the bag, we now notice that the emperor who was holding that burlap sack of cat is in fact naked. Or at least that should be the story here but as you can see from the stories filed above by the New York Times alone, the real attention seems to be on the fact that China is in fact hacking us. Well, I am sorry but I have news for you all, they have been hacking us for a long time now and doing very well at it. The primary reason for their being so able to steal us blind though is not as the media and the government and the Mandiant or Crowdstrike’s of the world would like you think. The APT (Advanced Persistent Threat) it seems, does not have to be advanced. They just need to be persistent and might I add patient.

So when you read the headlines and the stories like those in the Times about the advanced malware called “Sakula” and how the tricksy Chinese have gotten administrator on OPM systems I cannot blame the uninitiated thinking that this is hard and that the Chinese actors are the equivalent of super villains hacking from beneath islands with skull faced volcano’s on them. After all, the media is teaching the people not in the know by these lede’s that computer security is unfathomable and hard. You know, like the comment by Archuleta in the Congressional hearing that “Security takes decades” No ma’am it doesn’t and as the congressman who yelled at you that day said, we don’t have decades. In fact, I would say that this game of Go is almost done and we aren’t winning. We have lost and the reasons we have lost are manifold but I would say that the root of it all is that we, America, have abdicated the notion of securing the things that we should have long ago. The excuses are many; because it would be costly, or hard, or perhaps more so due to government stagnation, self interest, and indolence.

I know that the majority of the readers of my blog are in the security community but I wanted this post to reach across the void to the everyman on this matter. I exhort you to read the stories in the news and to take a step back. Consider the following statements and really understand where we are today.

  • The OIG not only has been reporting on the OPM’s security issues but all of the governments. Go read the reports online for other orgs. You just have to Google for them and you will see over the years the same issues surfacing.
  • OPM was told many times and with every report only minor changes were made. Money was not spent, people were not brought in, and all over networks that hold sensitive data.
  • OPM was not practising security at a level commensurate with policies and procedures that were standard 20 years ago.
  • OPM is part of a larger network of systems intergovernmentally. DOI (Dept of Interior) is one that I have had personal experince with. Insecurities abound.
  • Since the hearings the President has made comment that he believes in Archuleta and she is keeping her job, though she has failed to make changers per OIG that have been pending for years.
  • The argument that an adversary is advanced falls apart when the target is not following even the base security protocols that stop a user from using “password” as a password lord knows what else they weren’t doing.

Brass tacks, we deserved to be hacked.

Sad but true.

So gentle reader, consider what I have told you here. The government is not protecting OUR data commensurate with the security requirements we would demand of a company that holds it like say Target. It’s time to hold the government to the standards that they would like to enforce on companies. Let’s not listen to the marketing leaks by Mandiant and Crowdstrike about the actors and who they may be. What matters is that the data was taken and the reason it was taken was because of poor security and bad management on the part of the federal government. You know, those guys rattling the cyber war sabre lately.

Physician heal thyself.

K.

 

Written by Krypt3ia

2015/06/22 at 14:09